Learn how to use rsync for copying data in Linux
Learn how to sync time in Linux distributions like CentOS, RHEL, Fedora, Debian and Ubuntu using chrony
Learn how to create a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 image to run on Azure Mv2.
Learn how to connect Linphone to Asterisk and to make sure that it works.
LinuxUprising: broot is an interactive command line tool written in Rust for navigating directories using a tree view and fuzzy search.
Regula rules are written in Rego, the open source policy language employed by the Open Policy Agent project
itsFOSS: Root user is essential to any Linux distribution
Meet Zorin Grid, an in-house built tool whose whole purpose is to make it simple for IT administrators to set up, manage, and secure a fleet of Linux-powered computers in any type of organization
The NVIDIA Driver is a program needed for your NVIDIA Graphics GPU to function with better performance.
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Microsoft’s monthly Patch Tuesday included a hefty haul of fixes: 49 total, and one of them is more than just critical. For enterprises running Windows Server 2016 and Server 2019, it's vital you implement the patch ASAP.
The National Security Agency (NSA) disclosed the Windows vulnerability on Tuesday, the same day the fix was issued. That means the NSA found the flaw likely months ago but held off on public notification until Microsoft could come up with a fix. It would be irresponsible for the NSA, or anyone else, to announce a vulnerability and not give the software maker time to patch it.
The vulnerability was spotted in "crypt32.dll," a Windows module that has been in both desktop and server versions since NT 4.0 more than 20 years ago. Microsoft describes the library as handling certificate and cryptographic messaging functions in the CryptoAPI.
Yes, your container infrastructure needs some type of backup. Kubernetes and Docker will not magically build themselves after a disaster. As discussed in a separate article, you don’t need to back up the running state of each container, but you will need to back up the configuration used to run and manage your containers.
Here’s a quick reminder of what you’ll need to back up.
Configuration and desired-state information
- The Dockerfiles used to build your images and all versions of those files
- The images created from the Dockerfile and used to run each container
- Kubernetes etcd & other - K8s databases that info on cluster state
- Deployments - YAML files describing each deployment
Persistent data created or changed by containers
- Persistent volumes
Docker containers are run from images, and images are built from Dockerfiles. A proper Docker configuration would first use some kind of repository such as GitHub as a version-control system for all Dockerfiles. Do not create ad hoc containers using ad hoc images built from ad hoc Dockerfiles. All Dockerfiles should be stored in a repository that allows you to pull historical versions of that Dockerfile should there be a problem with the current build.
If you are administering a Linux system, there will likely be times that you need to lock an account. Maybe someone is changing positions and their continued need for the account is under question; maybe there’s reason to believe that access to the account has been compromised. In any event, knowing how to lock an account and how to unlock it should it be needed again is something you need to be able to do.
One important thing to keep in mind is that there are multiple ways to lock an account, and they don't all have the same effect. If the account user is accessing an account using public/private keys instead of a password, some commands you might use to block access to an account will not be effective.
This week's Patch Tuesday marked the end of the line for both Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 (and 2008 R2). No more fixes will be issued for the two aged operating systems, unless you purchase a pricey extended service license.
On the Windows 7 front, Microsoft has done a good job getting Windows 10 deployed through its aggressive (perhaps too aggressive) upgrade program. According to StatCounter, Windows 10 now accounts for 65% of the worldwide desktop Windows market share, and Windows 7 is down to 27%.
Google Cloud announced the general availability of Archive, a long-term data retention service intended as an alternative to on-premises tape backup.
Google pitches it as cold storage, meaning it is for data which is accessed less than once a year and has been stored for many years. Cold storage data is usually consigned to tape backup, which remains a surprisingly successful market despite repeated predictions of its demise.
Of course, Google's competition has their own products. Amazon Web Services has Glacier, Microsoft has Cool Blob Storage, and IBM has Cloud Storage. Google also offers its own Coldline and Nearline cloud storage offerings; Coldline is designed for data a business expects to touch less than once a quarter, while Nearline is aimed at data that requires access less than once a month.
Until a few years ago, physical servers were a bedrock technology, the beating digital heart of every data center. Then the cloud materialized. Today, as organizations continue to shovel an ever-growing number of services toward cloud providers, on-premises servers seem to be on the verge of becoming an endangered species.
Serverless computing is doing its share to accelerate the demise of on-premises servers. The concept of turning to a cloud provider to dynamically manage the allocation of machine resources and bill users only for the actual amount of resources consumed by applications is gaining increasing acceptance. A late 2019 survey conducted by technical media and training firm O'Reilly found that four out of 10 enterprises, spanning a wide range of locations and industries, have already adopted serverless technologies.
Sending information instantly between two computer chips using quantum teleportation has been accomplished reliably for the first time, according to scientists from the University of Bristol, in collaboration with the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Data was exchanged without any electrical or physical connection – a transmission method that may influence the next generation of ultra-secure data networks.
Teleportation involves the moving of information instantaneously and securely. In the “Star Trek” series, fictional people move immediately from one place to another via teleportation. In the University of Bristol experiment, data is passed instantly via a single quantum state across two chips using light particles, or photons. Importantly, each of the two chips knows the characteristics of the other, because they’re entangled through quantum physics, meaning they therefore share a single physics-based state.
Most businesses operate via the cloud. That means now is an ideal time to consider a career keeping them secure. But that doesn’t necessarily mean that you’d have to go back to school for professional training. Instead, you can easily learn from home — and prep to earn valuable credentials that’ll help you land a job — with The Essential Cloud Security Certification Bundle, now just $49.
As global enterprises continue to adopt and deploy SD-WAN as a key enabler of cloud and digital transformation initiatives, they must also consider the importance of infrastructure scalability to accommodate the dynamic nature of connecting users to business applications and services regardless of where they are physically located. This is driving an increased focus on ease-of-use, automation, and orchestration, which industry analyst firm Futuriom cites as one of the top features of SD-WAN functionality.
Why is this becoming increasingly important? Many large-scale global enterprises have multiple divisions, business units or subsidiaries that may each require a dedicated SD-WAN fabric to comply with company financial policies, geography, business jurisdiction or regulatory requirements or simply to create independent administrative domains. Each fabric can be individually orchestrated and managed yet still provides centralized network-wide visibility and control, including aggregated observability of the entire network.
Enterprise tech crossed a significant line as the decade ended. For the first time, enterprises spent more annually on cloud infrastructure services than on data-center hardware and software, according to Synergy Research Group.
Synergy reports that total spending on cloud infrastructure services in 2019 will reach $97 billion, a 38% increase over the prior year. Ten years ago, that spending was near zero. Total spending on data center hardware and software, on the other hand, is expected to hit $93 billion in 2019, an increase of only 1% when compared to 2018.
There’s always an adoption curve when it comes to new technologies. In today’s digital landscape, where industries are constantly being disrupted by new applications and use cases driven by IoT, machine learning, AI, and analytics, those not on the NVMe™ adoption curve may get left behind. Simply put, IT managers must design for the future.
Today, many IT organizations have started embracing NVMe for its high performance and low latency— and as a better alternative to legacy protocols such as SATA for accessing flash storage. But for others, the question is not “if,” but “when” you will bring NVMe into your organization.
Digital transformation has increased the importance of the network, particularly the edge, where customers, employees, cloud applications and IoT devices connect to the enterprise. The legacy static and non-differentiated network edge of years past is no longer sufficient for many reasons, so as companies embark on digital-transformation plans, their networks must evolve.
Networking pros should be looking at, among other things, improving security and embracing software-defined networking (SDN) that supports propagating changes quickly across the network in order to accommodate the many challenges digital transformation creates.
Cumulus Networks has announced a partnership with HPE that will see its NetQ management software run on HPE's network storage products.
Under the deal, HPE's StoreFabric M-Series Ethernet switches will run Cumulus's Linux operating system and NetQ, a move that Cumulus said in a statement will deliver “a flexible networking fabric that is predictable, scalable, and reliable."
Combining the M-Series switches with Linux and NetQ will offer enterprises a high-bandwidth, low-latency way to connect primary, secondary, hyperconverged, NAS, or object-storage systems, and is an ideal way to build an Ethernet Storage Fabric (ESF), the company added.
Communications networks without a centralized infrastructure will become more popular this year as folks become increasingly aware of data collection from governments and tech companies, says telecommunications provider Telenor Group.
The company refers to fully encrypted mesh and peer-to-peer apps as the technology that will enable these consumer-level “off-the-grid, build-it-yourself” links. Mesh apps will also be useful in disasters where traditional networks fail.
“Communicating without a central coordinating network is appealing to people for many reasons, and in 2020, we expect to see more go that route, especially in conflict situations, to mobilize for protests, and simply to stay below the radar,” the company says on its website.
Aruba has taken steps to bolster the security and manageability of its branch-office networking package for customers with lots of branch sites.
The HPE company enhanced its SD-Branch software with identity-based attack detection and intrusion prevention, and improvements to its SD-WAN Orchestrator to make it easier to deploy security features on a large scale.
Aruba’s SD-Branch software runs on its branch gateways and includes a variety of integrated features like a firewall that support LAN, WAN, Wi-Fi networks, and segmentation as well integration with the company’s ClearPass policy-management software and its cloud-based package Aruba Central. The package can integrate its data with partner security platforms such as Check Point, Palo Alto Networks, and Z-Scaler.
Global expansion is a common goal for many enterprises. In some verticals, like manufacturing, running production lines globally is an established practice. However, deploying international sales, service, and engineering teams is becoming the norm for many other sectors including high tech, finance, retail, and more.
A global enterprise footprint creates a unique set of challenges that do not occur in regional businesses. Users in a remote office will need to securely access data-center applications, cloud applications, or both. Depending on the distance between the remote location and the application—and the sensitivity of the application to high latency, packet loss, and jitter—an expensive set of technologies and capabilities will be needed to optimize the user experience.
AppArmor is a useful Linux security module that can restrict the file-system paths used by an application.
It works differently than Security-Enhanced Linux (SELinux) and cannot run on at the same time on the same system with SELinux, which comes installed on some Linux distributions.
The question is when to use AppArmor and what it can do to protect your system.
This 2-Minute Linux Tip video below is an introduction to AppArmor and how to get starting using it.
Sources in Asian memory chipmakers are projecting that NAND flash contract prices will rise by 40% in 2020 due to product ramps and increased demand, according to the Taiwanese publication DigiTimes.
The article, now locked behind a subscription wall, cited sources at Taiwanese memory makers. However, the biggest makers of NAND flash are not Taiwanese, like Samsung, Toshiba, and Micron. This would impact memory cards, USB flash drives, and solid-state drives. It noted the contract price of SSDs had been falling for a few years and only started to rise after production issues reduced NAND output in the second quarter of 2019.
About a year ago it was becoming clear to Johnsonville Sausage’s IT department that it had to modernize its wide area network to get costs down and simplify the overall enterprise network environment to effectively move the business forward.
The company embarked on a two-pronged path that moved its US and global business and industrial networks toward a software-defined WAN (SD-WAN) environment -- eliminating costly MPLS links -- and a more automated, controlled system that has restored quality of life back to IT, said Johnsonville Sausage Global Network Operations Manager Anthony Wild.
It’s an exciting time in Wide Area Networking. With the rapid adoption of software-defined wide area networking (SD-WAN) architectures, we’re experiencing the biggest transformation in the WAN since the introduction of MPLS back in the late 90s.
As with all new technologies, there is a lot of hype and a stampede of companies looking to capitalize on a hot new category. At last count, there were about 70 companies with marketing messages all vying to hop on the five letter “S-D-W-A-N” bandwagon.
Interestingly, in the newly Gartner 2019 Magic Quadrant for WAN Edge Infrastructure, there are only two companies positioned as Leaders, Silver Peak and VMware. Seventeen others are positioned across the Niche, Visionary and Challenger quadrants. Ten additional companies are listed but didn’t meet the qualification criteria for inclusion in the Magic Quadrant.
Researchers at Purdue University have made progress towards an elusive goal: building a transistor that can both process and store information. In the future, a single on-chip component could integrate the processing functions of transistors with the storage capabilities of ferroelectric RAM, potentially creating a process-memory combo that enables faster computing and is just atoms thick.
The ability to cram more functions onto a chip, allowing for greater speed and power without increasing the footprint, is a core goal of electronics design. To get where they are today, engineers at Purdue had to overcome incompatibilities between transistors – the switching and amplification mechanisms used in almost all electronics – and ferroelectric RAM. Ferroelectric RAM is higher-performing memory technology; the material introduces non-volatility, which means it retains information when power is lost, unlike traditional dielectric-layer-constructed DRAM.
One of the easiest ways to generate a list of numbers in Linux is to use the seq (sequence) command. In its simplest form, seq will take a single number and then list all the numbers from 1 to that number. For example:
$ seq 5 1 2 3 4 5
Unless directed otherwise, seq always starts with 1. You can start a sequence with a different number by inserting it before the final number.
$ seq 3 5 3 4 5
Specifying an increment
You can also specify an increment. Say you want to list multiples of 3. Specify your starting point (first 3 in this example), increment (second 3) and end point (18).
The next big wave of Wi-Fi technology, 802.11ax, is going to become more commonplace in enterprise installations over the course of the coming year, just as the marketing teams for the makers of Wi-Fi equivalent will have you believe. Yet the rosiest predictions of revolutionary change in what enterprise Wi-Fi is capable of are still a bit farther off than 2020, according to industry experts.
The crux of the matter is that, while access points with 802.11ax’s Wi-Fi 6 branding will steadily move into enterprise deployments in, the broader Wi-Fi ecosystem will not be dominated by the new standard for several years, according to Farpoint Group principal Craig Mathias.
It has been almost a year since I first wrote about Stateless, Inc., a startup devoted to bringing software-defined interconnects (SD-IX) to colocation data centers. At that time, the company was just announcing its plans to reinvent the means to connect workloads across data centers, hyperscale clouds and on-premises footprints using SD-IX. The intent was to give colo service providers a simpler way to quickly deploy network services for their tenants. Those plans have come to fruition and the company has announced the general availability (GA) of its Luxon SD-IX platform.
IT generally requires a good reason to disrupt a smooth working environment, which is why some hardware sits deployed for decades. Even though Windows Server 2016 is relatively young, there’s a decent argument to be made for upgrading a Server 2016 environment to Server 2019, the most recent release.
There’s a longer span between Windows Server releases than the desktop version of the software because of slower migration habits on the server side, and this means bigger changes between releases. Windows Server 2016 was the first server OS built on the Windows 10 kernel, and some of the changes were rather rough. Windows Server 2019 is markedly faster, and it has a number of changes under the hood, from security to hybrid cloud integration. Here’s a rundown of what’s new and what are the most compelling arguments for upgrade.